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The Reactivity and Structure of Size Selected VxO y Clusters on a TiO2 (110)-(1 X 1) Surface of Variable Oxidation State

Neilson, Hunter L.
Degree Grantor:
University of California, Santa Barbara. Chemistry
Degree Supervisor:
Steven K. Buratto
Place of Publication:
[Santa Barbara, Calif.]
University of California, Santa Barbara
Creation Date:
Issued Date:
Physical chemistry and Nanoscience
Heterogeneous Catalysis
Temperature Programmed Desorption
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Vanadium Oxide Model Catalysts
TiO2 (110).
UHV Model Catalyst Systems
Dissertations, Academic and Online resources
Ph.D.--University of California, Santa Barbara, 2015

The Reactivity and Structure of Size Selected VxOy Clusters on a TiO2 (110) Surface of Variable Oxidation State by Hunter L Neilson The selective oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol by vanadium oxide/TiO2 model systems has received a great deal of interest in the surface science community. Previous studies using temperature programmed desorption and reaction (TPD/R) to probe the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde by vanadia/TiO2 model catalysts have shown that the activity of these systems vary considerably based on the way in which the model system is prepared with formaldehyde desorption temperatures observed anywhere from room temperature to 660 K. The principle reason for this variation is that the preparation of sub-monolayer films of vanadia on TiO2 produces clusters with a multitude of VxOy structures and a mixture of vanadium oxidation states.

As a result the stoichiometry of the active vanadium oxide catalyst as well as the oxidation state of vanadium in the active catalyst remain unknown. To better understand this system, our group has probed the reactivity and structure of size-selected Vx, VOy and VxOy clusters on a reduced TiO2 (110) support in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) via TPD/R and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Ex situ preparation of these clusters in the gas phase prior to deposition has allowed us to systematically vary the stoichiometry of the vanadia clusters; a layer of control not available via the usual routes to vanadium oxide. The most active catalysts are shown to have (VO3)n stoichiometry in agreement with the theoretical models of the Metiu group. We have shown that both the activity and selectivity of V2O6 and V3O9 cluster catalysts depend sensitively on the oxidation state of the TiO2 (110) support.

For example, V2O6 on a reduced surface is selective for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde while the selectivity shifts to favor methyl formate as the surface becomes increasingly oxidized. STM studies show that the structure of size-selected V2O6 clusters, upon adsorption to the surface, varies considerably with the oxidation state of the support, in good agreement with our reactivity studies. V 3O9 was shown to catalyze the oxidation of methanol to both formaldehyde and methyl formate on a reduced surface while STM suggests that, unlike V2O6, these clusters are prone to decomposition upon adsorption to the surface. Furthermore, TPD/R of size selected V 2O5 and V2O7 on TiO2 suggests that altering the stoichiometry of the (VO3)n clusters by a single oxygen atom significantly inhibits the activity of these catalysts.

Physical Description:
1 online resource (217 pages)
UCSB electronic theses and dissertations
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Inc.icon only.dark In Copyright
Copyright Holder:
Hunter Neilson
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