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Characterization of Polar, Semi-Polar, and Non-Polar p-n Homo and Hetero-junctions grown by Ammonia Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Hurni, Christophe Antoine
Degree Grantor:
University of California, Santa Barbara. Materials
Degree Supervisor:
James S. Speck
Place of Publication:
[Santa Barbara, Calif.]
University of California, Santa Barbara
Creation Date:
Issued Date:
Engineering, Electronics and Electrical and Engineering, Materials Science
Band offset
Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Dissertations, Academic and Online resources
Ph.D.--University of California, Santa Barbara, 2012

Widespread interest in the group III-Nitrides began with the achievement of p-type conductivity in the early 1990s in Mg-doped GaN films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) by Nakamura et al. Indeed, MOCVD-grown Mg-doped GaN is insulating as-grown, because of the formation of neutral Mg-H complexes. Nakamura et al. showed that a rapid thermal anneal removes the hydrogen and enables p-conductivity. Shortly after this discovery, the first LEDs and lasers were demonstrated by Nakamura et al. The necessary annealing step is problematic for devices which need a buried p-layer, such as hetero-junction bipolar transistors. Ammonia molecular beam epitaxy (NH3-MBE) has a great potential for growing vertical III-Nitrides-based devices, thank to its N-rich growth conditions and all the usual advantages of MBE, which include a low-impurity growth environment, in situ monitoring techniques as well as the ability to grow sharp interfaces.

We first investigated the growth of p-GaN by NH3-MBE. We found that the hole concentration strongly depends on the growth temperature. Thanks to comprehensive Hall and transfer length measurements, we found evidences for a compensating donor defects in NH3-MBE-grown Mg-doped GaN films. High-quality p-n junctions with very low reverse current and close to unity ideality factor were also grown and investigated.

For the design of heterojunction devices such as laser diodes, light emitting diodes or heterojunction bipolar transistors, hetero-interface's characteristics such as the band offset or interface charges are fundamental. A technique developed by Kroemer et al. uses capacitance-voltage (C-V) profiling to extract band-offsets and charges at a hetero-interface. We applied this technique to the III-Nitrides. We discovered that for the polar III-Nitrides, the technique is not applicable because of the very large polarization charge. We nevertheless successfully measured the polarization charge at the AlGaN/GaN hetero-interface though C-V profiling. In the non-polar and semi-polar cases, the hetero-interface charge was low enough to extract the conduction band-offset through C-V profiling, provided that the doping profile had a foreseeable behavior.

Physical Description:
1 online resource (145 pages)
UCSB electronic theses and dissertations
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Inc.icon only.dark In Copyright
Copyright Holder:
Christophe Hurni
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